The claims of potential benefits allegedly provided by medically unnecessary, non-therapeutic infant circumcision lack any real support from evidence-based science. In each of these instances, there are alternatives to circumcision that are more effective, less expensive, and less injurious.
1. Council on Scientific Affairs. Report 10: Neonatal circumcision. Chicago: American Medical Association; 1999. Available at: web.archive.org/web/20041212215045/, www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/13585.html
2. Anders TF, Chalemian RJ. The effects of circumcision on sleep-wake states in human neonates. Psychosom Med. 1974;36:174-9.
3. Emde RN, Harmon RJ, Metcalf D, Koenig KL, Wagonfeld S. Stress and neonatal sleep. Psychosom Med. 1971;33:491-7.
4. Howard CR, Howard FM, Weitzman ML. Acetaminophen analgesia in neonatal circumcision: the effect on pain. Pediatrics. 1994;93(4):641-6.
5. American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision. Male circumcision. Pediatrics. 2012;130(3):e756-85.
6. Wolbarst AL. Universal circumcision as a sanitary measure. JAMA. 1914;LXII(2):92-7.
7. Thorvaldsen MA, Meyhoff H. Patologisk eller fysiologisk fimose? Ugeskr Læger. 2005;167(17):1858-62.
8. Kayaba H, Tamura H, Kitajima S, Fujiwara Y, Kato T, Kato T. Analysis of shape and retractibility of the prepuce in 603 Japanese boys. J Urol. 1996;156:1813-5.
9. Øster J. Further fate of the foreskin: incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish Schoolboys. Arch Dis Child. 1968;43:200-3.
10. Babu R, Harrison SK, Hutton KA. Ballooning of the foreskin and physiological phimosis: is there any objective evidence of obstructed voiding? BJU Int. 2004;94(3):384-7.
11. Shankar KR, Rickwood AMK. The incidence of phimosis in boys. BJU Int. 1999;84:101-2.
12. Edwards SK, Bunker CB, Ziller F, van der Meijden WI. 2013 European guideline for the management of balanoposthitis. Int J STD AIDS. 2014;25(9):615-626.
13. Tsen HF, Morgenstern H, Mack T, Peters RK. Risk factors for penile cancer: results of a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles County (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12(3):267-77.
14. Orsola A, Caffaratti J, Garat JM. Conservative treatment of phimosis in children using a topical steroid. Urology. 2000;56(2):307-10.
15. Ashfield JE, Nickel KR, Siemens DR, MacNeily AE, Nickel JC. Treatment of phimosis with topical steroids in 194 children. J Urol. 2003;169(3):1106-8.
16. Dunn HP. Non-surgical management of phimosis. Aust N Z J Surg. 1989;59(12):963.
17. Beaugé M. The causes of adolescent phimosis. Br J Sex Med. 1997;Sept/Oct:26.
18. Cuckow PM, Rix G, Mouriquand PD. Preputial plasty: a good alternative to circumcision. J Pediatr Surg. 1994;29:561-3.
19. Lane TM, South LM. Triple incision to treat phimosis in children: an alternative to circumcision. BJU Int. 2004;93:635.
20. Dockray J, Finlayson A, Muir GH. Penile frenuloplasty: a simple and effective treatment for frenular pain or scarring. BJU Int. 2012;109(10):1546-50.
21. Blalock HJ, Vemulakonda V, Ritchey ML, Ribbeck M. Outpatient management of phimosis following newborn circumcision. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2332-4.
22. Singh-Grewal D, Macdessi J, Craig J. Circumcision for the prevention of urinary tract infection in boys: a systematic review of randomized trials and observational studies. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90(8):853-8.
23. To T, Agha M, Dick PT, Feldman W. Cohort study on circumcision of newborn boys and subsequent risk of urinary-tract infection. Lancet. 1998;352:1813-6.
24. Mårild S, Jodal U. Incidence rate of first-time symptomatic urinary tract infection in children under 6 years of age. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87(5):549-52.
25. Roberts KB, Akintemi OB. The epidemiology and clinical presentation of urinary tract infections in children younger than 2 years of age. Pediatr Ann. 1999;28:644-9.
26. McCracken G. Options in antimicrobial management of urinary tract infections in infants and children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989;8(8):552-5.
27. Larcombe J. Urinary tract infection in children. BMJ. 1999;319:1173-5.
28. Hoberman A, Wald ER, Hickey RW, Baskin M, Charron M, Majd M, et al. Oral versus initial intravenous therapy for urinary tract infections in young febrile children. Pediatrics. 1999;104:79-86.
29. Pecile P, Miorin E, Romanello C, Vidal E, Contardo M, Valent F, et al. Age-related renal parenchymal lesions in children with first febrile urinary tract infections. Pediatrics. 2009;124;23-9.
30. Sreenarasimhaiah S, Hellerstein S. Urinary tract infections per se do not cause end-stage kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 1998;12:210-3.
31. Helin I, Winberg J. Chronic renal failure in Swedish children. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1980;69:607-11.
32. Esbjörner E, Aronson S, Berg U, Jodal U, Linne T. Children with chronic renal failure in Sweden 1978-1985. Pediatr Nephrol. 1990;4:249-52.
33. Esbjörner E, Berg U, Hansson S. Epidemiology of chronic renal failure in children: a report from Sweden 1986-1994. Swedish Pediatric Nephrology Association. Pediatr Nephrol. 1997;11:438-42.
34. Wennerström M, Hansson S, Jodal U, Sixt R, Stokland E. Renal function 16 to 26 years after first urinary tract infection in childhood. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:339-45.
35. Wennerström M, Hansson S, Hedner T, Himmelmann A, Jodal U. Ambulatory blood pressure 16-26 years after the first urinary tract infection in childhood. J Hypertens. 2000;18:485-91.
36. Wolfish NM, Delbrouck NF, Shanon A, Matzinger MA, Stenstrom R, McLaine PN. Prevalence of hypertension in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. J Pediatr. 1993;123:559-63.
37. Salo J, Ikäheimo R, Tapiainen T, Uhari M. Childhood urinary tract infections as a cause of chronic kidney disease. Pediatrics. 2011;128:840-7.
38. Wiswell TE, Smith FR, Bass JW. Decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics. 1985;75(5):901-3.
39. Task Force on Circumcision. Report of the Task Force on Circumcision. Pediatrics. 1989;84(4):388-91.
40. Van Howe RS. Effect of confounding in the association between circumcision status and urinary tract infection. J Infect. 2005;51:59-68.
41. Osborn LM, Metcalf TJ, Mariani EM. Hygienic care in uncircumcised infants. Pediatrics. 1981;84(4):365-7.
42. Geisheker J. What is the greatest danger for an uncircumcised boy? Psychology Today website. 2011 Oct 23.
43. Menahem S. Complications arising from ritual circumcision: pathogenesis and possible prevention. Isr J Med Sci. 1981;17(1):45-8.
44. Cohen HA, Drucker MM, Vainer S, Ashkenasi A, Amir J, Frydman M, et al. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection. Clin Pediatr.1992;31(6):322-4.
45. Goldman M, Barr J, Bistritzer T, Aladjem M. Urinary tract infection following ritual Jewish circumcision. Isr J Med Sci. 1996;32:1098-102.
46. Amir J, Varsano I, Mimouni M. Circumcision and urinary tract infection in infants. Am J Dis Child. 1986;140:1092.
47. Amir J, Alpert G, Reisner SH, Nitzan M. Fever in the first year of life. Israel J Med Sci. 1984;20:447-8.
48. Harel L, Straussberg R, Jackson S, Amir J. Influence of circumcision technique on frequency of urinary tract infections in neonates. Pediatr Infect Dis. J 2002;21:879-80.
49. Prais D, Shoov-Furman R, Amir J. Is ritual circumcision a risk factor for neonatal urinary tract infections? Arch Dis Child. 2009;94:191-4.
50. Toker O, Schwartz S, Segal G, Godovitch N, Schlesinger Y, Raveh D. A costly covenant: ritual circumcision and urinary tract infection. Isr Med Assoc J. 2010;12:262-5.
51. Mueller ER, Steinhardt G, Naseer S. The incidence of genitourinary abnormalities in circumcised and uncircumcised boys presenting with an initial urinary tract infection by 6 months of age. Pediatrics. 1997;100(Supplement):580.
52. Kwak C, Oh SJ, Lee A, Choi H. Effect of circumcision on urinary tract infection after successful antireflux surgery. BJU Int. 2004;94(4):627-9.
53. Hart-Cooper GD, Tao G, Stock JA, Hoover KW. Circumcision of privately insured males aged 0 to 18 years in the United States. Pediatrics. 2014;134:950-6.
54. Broadis E, Kronfli R, Flett ME, Cascio S, O’Toole SJ. ‘Targeted top down’ approach for the investigation of UTI: a 10-year follow-up study in a cohort of 1000 children. J Pediatr Urol. 2016;12(1):39.e1-6.
55. Chessare JB. Circumcision: is the risk of urinary tract infection really the pivotal issue? Clin Pediatr. 1992;31(2):100-4.
56. Ganiats TG, Humphrey JB, Taras HL, Kaplan RM. Routine neonatal circumcision: a cost-utility analysis. Med Decis Making. 1991;11:282-93.
57. Van Howe RS. A cost-utility analysis of neonatal circumcision. Med Decis Making. 2004;24:584-601.
58. Hanson LÅ. Protective effects of breastfeeding against urinary tract infection. Acta Paediatr Scand. 2004;93(2);154-6.
59. Mårild S, Hansson S, Jodal U, Oden A, Svedberg K. Protective effect of breastfeeding against urinary tract infection. Acta Paediatr Scand. 2004;93(2):164-8.
60. Pisacane A, Graziano L, Mazzarella G, Scarpellino B, Zona G. Breast-feeding and urinary tract infection. J Pediatr. 1992;120(1):87-9.
61. Ladomenou F, Moschandreas J, Kafatos A, Tselentis Y, Galanakis E. Protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against infections during infancy: a prospective study. Arch Dis Child. 2010;95(12):1004-8.
62. Outerbridge EW. Decreasing the risk of urinary tract infections [letter]. Paediatr Child Health. 1998;3(1):19.
63. Section on Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2005;115(2):496-506. Available at: pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/115/2/496.full.pdf
64. Winberg J, Bollgren I, Gothefors L, Herthelius M, Tullus K. The prepuce: a mistake of nature? Lancet. 1989;1:598-9.
65. Darby R. A surgical temptation: the demonization of the foreskin and the rise of circumcision in Britain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 2005.
66. Holt LE. Tuberculosis acquired through ritual circumcision. JAMA. 1913;LXI(2):99-102.
67. Van Howe RS. Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted urethritis and circumcision: a meta-analysis. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:799-809.
68. Van Howe RS. Sexually transmitted infections and male circumcision: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ISRN Urol. 2013:109846.
69. Weiss HA, Thomas SL, Munabi SK, Hayes RJ. Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82:101-10.
70. Tobian AAR, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, Kigozi G, Gravitt PE, Laeyendecker O, et al. Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1298-309.
71. Mehta SD, Moses S, Parker CB, Agot K, Maclean I, Bailey RC. Circumcision status and incident HSV-2 infection, genital ulcer disease, and HIV infection. AIDS. 2012;26:1141-9.
72. Weaver BA, Feng Q, Holmes KK, Kiviat N, Lee SK, Meyer C, et al. Evaluation of genital sites and sampling techniques for detection of human papillomavirus DNA in men. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:677-85.
73. VanBuskirk K, Winer RL, Hughes JP, Geng Q, Arima Y, Lee S-K, et al. Circumcision and the acquisition of human papillomarvirus infection in young men. Sex Trans Dis. 2011;38:1074-81.
74. Aynaud O, Piron D, Bijaoui G, Casanova JM. Developmental factors of urethral human papillomavirus lesions: correlation with circumcision. BJU Int. 1999;84;57-60.
75. Aynaud O, Ionesco M, Barrasso R. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia. Specific clinical features correlate with histologic and virologic findings. Cancer. 1994;74:1762-7.
76. Oriel JD. Natural history of genital warts. Br J Vener Dis. 1971;47:1-13.
77. Hernandez BY, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, McDuffie K, Thompson P, Shvetsov YB, et al. Circumcision and human papillomavirus infection in men: a site-specific comparison. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:787-94.
78. Van Howe RS. Human papillomavirus and circumcision: a meta-analysis. J Infect. 2007;54(5):490-6.
79. Tobin AAR, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, Kigozi G, Gravitt PE, Laeyendecker O, et al. Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1298-309.
80. Auvert B, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Cutler E, Nieuwoudt M, Lissaouba P, Puren A, et al. Effect of male circumcision on the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in young men: results of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Orange Farm, South Africa. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:14-9.
81. Storms MR. Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:307.
82. Van Howe RS. Sampling bias explains association between human papillomavirus and circumcision. J Inf Dis. 2009;200:832.
83. Sexually transmitted diseases across space and time. OnlineDoctor (UK) website. n.d. Available at: onlinedoctor.superdrug.com/std-us-eu/
84. Crosby R, Charnigo RJ. A comparison of condom use perceptions and behaviours between circumcised and intact men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(3):175-8.
85. Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, Puren A. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Med. 2005;2:e298.
86. Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, Agot K, Maclean I, Krieger JN, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369:643-656.
87. Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Makumbi F, Watya S, Nalugoda F, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):657-66.
88. Dowsett GW, Couch M. Male circumcision and HIV prevention: is there really enough of the right kind of evidence? Reprod Health Matters. 2007;15(29):33-44.
89. Green LW, McAllister RG, Peterson KW, Travis JW. Male circumcision is not the HIV ‘vaccine’ we have been waiting for! Futur HIV Ther. 2008;2(3):193-9.
90. Green LW, Travis JW, McAllister RG, Peterson KW, Vardanyan AN, Craig A. Male circumcision and HIV prevention: insufficient evidence and neglected external validity. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39(5):479-82.
91. Boyle GJ, Hill G. Sub-Saharan African randomised clinical trial in male circumcision and HIV transmission: methodological, ethical and legal concerns. J Law Med. 2011;19:316-34.
92. Van Howe RS, Storms MR. How the circumcision solution in Africa will increase HIV infections. J Publ Health Afr. 2011;2:e4.
93. Siegfried N, Muller M, Volmink J, Deeks J, Egger M, Low N, et al. Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;3:CD003362.
94. Wilson NL, Xiong W, Mattson CL. Is sex like driving? HIV prevention and risk compensation. J Dev Econ. 2014;106:78-91.
95. Akl EA, Briel M, You JJ, Sun X, Johnston BC, Busse JW, et al. Potential impact on estimated treatment effects of information lost to follow-up in randomised controlled trials (LOST-IT): systematic review. BMJ. 2012;344:e2809.
96. Pocock S, White I. Trials stopped early: too good to be true? Lancet. 1999;353:943-4.
97. Bassler D, Briel M, Montori VM, Lane M, Glasziou P, Zhou Q, et al. Stopping randomized trials early for benefit and estimation of treatment effects: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. JAMA. 2010;303:1180-7.
98. Williams BG, Lloyd-Smith JO, Gouws E, Hankins C, Getz WM, Hargrove J, et al. The potential impact of male circumcision on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e262.
99. Siegfried N, Muller M, Deeks JJ, Volmink J. Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;2:CD003362.
100. Mishra V, Medley A, Hong R, Yuan Gu Y, Robey B. Levels and spread of HIV seroprevalence and associated factors: evidence from national household surveys. DHS Comparative Reports No. 22. Calverton (MD): Macro International Inc; 2009.
101. Garenne M. Long-term population effect of male circumcision in generalised HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. Afr J AIDS Res. 2008;7:1-8.
102. Ministry of Health, ICF International, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Agency for International Development, WHO Uganda. Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011. Kampala (Uganda): Ministry of Health; 2012.
103. National AIDS Control Council, National AIDS and STD Control Programme. The Kenya AIDS epidemic: update 2011. Nairobi (Kenya): National AIDS Control Council; 2012.
104. Orido G. Push for male circumcision in Nyanza fails to reduce infections. Standard (Kenya) website. 2013 Sep 11. Available at: www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2000093293/push-for-male-circumcision-in-nyanza-fails-to-reduce-infections
105. WHO/UNAIDS Technical Consultation. Male circumcision and HIV prevention: research implications for policy and programming. Conclusions and recommendations. 2007 March.
106. Chiasson MA, Stoneburner RL, Hildebrandt DS, Ewing WE, Telzak EE, Jaffe HW. Heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 associated with the use of smokable freebase cocaine (crack). AIDS. 1991;5:1121-6.
107. Telzak EE, Chiasson MA, Bevier PJ, Stoneburner RL, Castro KG, Jaffe HW. HIV-1 seroconversion in patients with and without genital ulcer disease. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:1181-6.
108. Laumann EO, Masi CM, Zuckerman EW. Circumcision in the United States: prevalence, prophylactic effects, and sexual practice. JAMA. 1997;277:1052-7.
109. Thomas AG, Bakhireva LN, Brodline SK Shaffer RA. Prevalence of circumcision and its association with HIV and sexually transmitted infections in a male US Navy population. San Diego (CA): Naval Health Research Center. Report No. 04-10; 2004.
110. Mor Z, Kent CK, Kohn RP, Klausner JD. Declining rates in male circumcision amidst increasing evidence of its public health benefit. PLoS ONE. 2007;2(9):e861.
111. Warner L, Ghanem KG, Newman DR, Macaluso M, Sullivan PS, Erbelding EJ. Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection among heterosexual African American men attending Baltimore sexually transmitted disease clinics. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:59-65.
112. Rodriguez-Diaz CE, Clatts MC, Jovet-Toledo GG, Vargas-Molina RL, Goldsamt LA, García H. More than foreskin: circumcision status, history of HIV/STI, and sexual risk in a clinic-based sample of men in Puerto Rico. J Sex Med. 2012;9:2933-7.
113. Millett GA, Flores SA, Marks G, Reed JB, Herbst JH. Circumcision status and risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men. JAMA. 2008;300:1674-84. Errata JAMA. 2009;301:1126-9.
114. Crosby RA, Graham CA, Mena L, Yarber WL, Sanders SA, Milhausen RR, et al. Circumcision status is not associated with condom use and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young black MSM. AIDS Behav. 2015 Oct 7. Epub ahead of print.
115. Szabo R, Short RV. How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection? BMJ. 2000; 320(7249):1592-4.
116. de Witte L, Nabatov A, Pion M, Fluitsma D, de Jong MAWP, de Gruijl T, et al. Langerin is a natural barrier to HIV-1 transmission by Langerhans cells. Nat Med. 2007;3:367-71.
117. de Vincenzi I. A longitudinal study of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by heterosexual partners. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(6):341-6.
118. Lima V, Anema A, Wood R, Moore D, Harrigan R, Mills E, et al. The combined impact of male circumcision, condom use and HAART coverage on the HIV-1 epidemic in South Africa: a mathematical model. 5th IAS Conference on HIV Treatment, Pathogenesis and Prevention, Cape Town, abstract WECA105; 2009.
119. Donnell D, Baeten JM, Kiarie J, Thomas KK, Stevens W, Cohen CR, et al. Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis. Lancet. 2010;375(9731):2092-8.
120. Wolbarst A. Circumcision and penile cancer. Lancet. 1932;1(5655):150-3.
121. Boczko S, Freed S. Penile carcinoma in circumcised males. N Y State J Med. 1979;79(12):1903-4.
122. Maden C, Sherman KJ, Beckmann AM, Hislop TG, Teh CZ, Ashley RL, et al. History of circumcision, medical conditions, and sexual activity and risk of penile cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85(1):19-24.
123. Cold CR, Storms MR, Van Howe RS. Carcinoma in situ of the penis in a 76-year-old circumcised man. J Fam Pract. 1997;44:407-10.
124. Daling JR, Madeleine MM, Johnson LG, Schwartz SM, Shera KA, Wurscher MA, et al. Penile cancer: importance of circumcision, human papillomavirus and smoking in in situ and invasive disease. Int J Cancer. 2005;116:606-16.
125. Harish K, Ravi R. The role of tobacco in penile carcinoma. Br J Urol. 1995;75(3):375-7.
126. McCance DJ, Kalache A, Ashdown K, Andrade L, Menezes F, Smith P, et al. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in carcinomas of the penis from Brazil. Int J Cancer. 1986;37(1):55-9.
127. Jamieson NV, Bullock KN, Barker TH. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the penis associated with balanitis xerotica obliterans. Br J Urol. 1986;58:730-1.
128. Powell J, Robson A, Cranston D, Wojnarowska F, Turner R. High incidence of lichen sclerosus in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Br J Dermatol. 2000;145:85-9.
129. What are the key statistics about penile cancer? American Cancer Society website. Last revised 2016 Feb 9.
130. What are the risk factors for penile cancer? American Cancer Society website. Last revised 2016 Feb 9.
131. What are the key statistics about breast cancer in men? American Cancer Society website. Last revised 2016 Jan 26.
132. Can penile cancer be prevented? American Cancer Society website. Last revised 2016 Feb 9.
133. Gann PH. Risk factors for prostate cancer. Rev Urol. 2002;4(Suppl 5):S3-S10.
134. Rebbeck TR, Devesa SS, Chang BL, Bunker CH, Cheng I, Cooney K, et al. Global patterns of prostate cancer incidence, aggressiveness, and mortality in men of African descent. Prostate Cancer. 2013;2013:560857.
135. Wynder EL, Mabuchi K, Whitmore WF. Epidemiology of cancer of the prostate. Cancer. 1971;28:344-60.
136. Wright JL, Lin DW, Stanford JL. Circumcision and the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer. 2012;118:4437-43.
137. Spence AR, Rousseau MC, Karakiewicz PI, Parent ME. Circumcision and prostate cancer: a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada. BJU Int. 2014;114:E90-E98.
138. Yatani R, Chigusa I, Akazaki K, Stemmermann GN, Welsh RA, Correa P. Geographic pathology of latent prostatic carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1982;29(6):611-6.
139. Giles GG, Severi G, English DR, McCredie MRE, Borland R, Boyle P, et al. Sexual factors and prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2003;92:211-6.
140. Grulich AE, van Leeuwen MT, Falster MO, Vajdic CM. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370:59067.
141. Stanford JL, Stephenson RA, Coyle LM, Cerhan J, Correa R, Eley JW, et al. Prostate Cancer Trends 1973-1995, SEER Program, National Cancer Institute. NIH Pub. No. 99-4543. Bethesda (MD); 1999.
142. Tretli S, Engeland A, Hadorsen T, Hakulinen T, Hörte LG, Luostarinen T, et al. Prostate cancer — look at Denmark? J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996;88:128.
143. Oliver JC, Oliver RTD, Ballard RC. Influence of circumcision and sexual behavior on PSA levels in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2001;4:228-231.
144. Bosch FX, Lorincz A, Muñoz N, Meijer CJLM, Shah KV. The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. J Clin Pathol. 2002;55:244-265.
145. HPV and cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Reviewed 2015 Feb 19.
146. Chelimo C, Wouldes TA, Cameron LD, Elwood JM. Risk factors for and prevention of human papillomaviruses (HPV), genital warts and cervical cancer. J Infect. 2013;66(3):207-17.
147. Ribeiro AA, Costa MC, Alves RR, Villa LL, Saddi VA, Carneiro MA, et al. HPV infection and cervical neoplasia: associated risk factors. Infect Agent Cancer. 2015;10:16.
148. Roura E, Castellsagué X, Pawlita M, Travier N, Waterboer T, Margall N, et al. Smoking as a major risk factor for cervical cancer and pre-cancer: results from the EPIC cohort. Int J Cancer. 2014;135(2):453-66.
149. Albero G, Castellsagué X, Lin HY, Fulp W, Villa LL, Lazcano-Ponce E, et al. Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:75.
150. Winer RL, Lee S-K, Hughes JP, Adam DE, Kiviat NB, Koutsky LA. Genital human papillomavirus infection: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of female university students. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157:218-26. Errata 2003;157:858.
151. Wawer MJ, Tobian AAR, Kigozi G, Kong X, Gravitt PE, Serwadda D, et al. Effect of circumcision of HIV-negative men on transmission of human papillomavirus to HIV-negative women: a randomised trial in Rakai, Uganda. Lancet. 2011;377:209-18.
152. Van Howe RS. Human papillomavirus and circumcision: the story beyond the tip. Academia website. Presented at the 13th International Symposium on Genital Autonomy and Children’s Rights, Boulder (CO); 2014 Jul 24.
153. Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Meijer CJ, Shah KV, de Sanjose S, et al. Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1105-12.
154. Connon AF. Cancer detection survey gynaecological and epidemiological data. Med J Aust. 1972;1:738-41.
155. Aitken-Swan J, Baird D. Cancer of the uterine cervix in Aberdeenshire. Aetiological aspects. Br J Cancer. 1966;20:642-59.
156. Abou-Daoud KT. Epidemiology of carcinoma of the cervix uteri in Lebanese Christians and Moslems. Cancer. 1967;20:1706-14.
157. Wahi PN, Luthra UK, Mali S, Mitra AB. Religion and cervical carcinoma in Agra. Indian J Cancer. 1972;9:210-5
158. Zarkovic G. Alterations of cervical cytology and steroid contraceptive use. Int J Epidemiol. 1985;14:369-77.
159. Boyd JT, Doll RA. A study of the aetiology of carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Br J Cancer. 1964;18:419-34.
160. Jussawalla DJ, Yeole BB, Natekar MV. Cancer in Indian Moslems. Cancer. 1985;55:1149-58.
161. Kjaer SK, de Villiers EM, Dahl C, Engholm G, Bock JE, Vestergaard BF, et al. Case-control study of risk factors for cervical neoplasia in Denmark. I: Role of the “male factor” in women with one lifetime sexual partner. Int J Cancer. 1991;48:39-44.
162. Brinton LA, Reeves WC, Brenes MM, Herrero R, Gaitan E, Tenorio F, et al. The male factor in the etiology of cervical cancer among sexually monogamous women. Int J Cancer. 1989;44:199-203.
163. Terris M, Wilson F, Nelson JH. Relation of circumcision to cancer of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973;117:1056-66.
164. Agarwal SS, Sehgal A, Sardana S, Kumar A, Luthra UK. Role of male behavior in cervical carcinogenesis among women with one lifetime sexual partner. Cancer. 1993;72:1666-9.
165. Rotkin ID. A comparison review of key epidemiological studies in cervical cancer related to current searches for transmissible agents. Cancer Res. 1973;33:1353-67.
166. Stern E, Dixon WJ. Cancer of the cervix — a biometric approach to etiology. Cancer. 1961;14:153-60.
167. Kmet J, Damjanovski L, Stucin M, Bonta S, Cakmakov A. Circumcision and carcinoma colli uteri in Macedonia, Yugoslavia. Results from a field study. Br J Cancer. 1963;17:391-9.
168. Jones EG, MacDonald I, Breslow L. A study of epidemiologic factors in carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1958;76:1-10.
169. The Future II Study Group. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. New Engl J Med. 2007;356(19):1915-27.
170. Waldeck SE. Using male circumcision to understand social norms as multipliers. 72 University of Cincinnati L. Rev. 455 (2003).
171. World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Ferney-Voltaire (France): World Medical Association; 2013.
172. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Circumcision. Male circumcision. Pediatrics 2012;130:e756-e785.
173. Freedman AL. The circumcision debate: beyond benefits and risks. Pediatrics. 2016;137(5). Epub 2016 Apr 6.
174. Frisch M, Aigrain Y, Barauskas V, Bjarnason R, Boddy SA, Czauderna P, et al. Cultural bias in the AAP’s 2012 Technical Report and Policy Statement on male circumcision. Pediatrics. 2013;131(4):796-800.
175. Svoboda JS. Circumcision–a Victorian relic lacking ethical, medical, or legal justification. Am J Bioeth. 2003;3(2):52-4.
Revised June 2016 by Robert S. Van Howe, M.D. and others.